Department of Labor and Regulation

Title - Labor Market Information Center

LEHD, LED and more: "gifts" from the U.S. Census Bureau that give valuable LMI all year long

From the December 2011 South Dakota e-Labor Bulletin

The Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) is an innovative U.S. Census Bureau program which uses statistical and computing techniques to combine federal and state administrative data on employers and employees with core Census Bureau censuses and surveys. It is important to note that throughout this process, the confidentiality of the data is safeguarded.

The LEHD program melds the federal and state administrative data on employers and employees with the core census data and other census surveys. The Local Employment Dynamics (LED) program, an application housed on the Census Bureau's website, utilizes the LEHD data to provide detailed information regarding local labor markets. The LED is a voluntary partnership between state labor market information agencies and the U.S. Census Bureau to develop new information about local labor market conditions at low cost, with no added respondent burden, and with the same confidentiality protections afforded census and survey data.

Data produced through the LED partnership is utilized to produce the Quarterly Workforce Indicators (QWI). This online application provides a wide variety of economic indicators (including employment, job creation, wages and worker turnover) that can be queried by different levels of geography (state, county, metro and workforce investment area) as well as by detailed industry, gender and age of workers. This graphic, which includes comparative data for Aurora County and statewide South Dakota, details the QWI that are available, including the number of new hires and turnover rates.

Example of an LEHD South Dakota County Report from Quarterly Workforce Indicators (QWI) Online

Industry Focus, another related online application which also utilizes the LED data, allows users to analyze the top industries for their local area, focus in on a particular industry to see how it ranks among top industries, and also look at the characteristics of those who work in that industry. The table below shows the output provided when running a query to show the top ten private industries which employ the most workers in South Dakota.

Example of Industry Focus report on high growth industries in South Dakota, all workers

Other query options are available, including running reports specific to gender, age and educational attainment levels. For example, this table shows information for the top ten industries which employ female workers specific to the 25-34 year age group, as well as which industries employ the most female workers in the 25-34 year age group.

Example of Industry Focus report on high growth industries in South Dakota, female workers only


OnTheMap is a web-based mapping and reporting application that shows where workers are employed and where they live. It also provides companion reports on age, earnings, industry distributions and local workforce indicators.

Currently based on 2002-2009 LED worker origin and destination data and the Quarterly Workforce Indicators (QWI) data files, OnTheMap is a unique resource for mapping the travel patterns of workers and identifying small-area workforce characteristics.

OnTheMap provides graphics which provides key workforce information for specific geographic areas, including cities, counties and states. Referencing 2009 LED data, there were approximately 372,000 jobs in our state, with approximately 20,000 (5.4 percent) of these jobs employing workers who commute into South Dakota to work. Approximately 372,000 (94.6 percent) of these jobs are filled by South Dakota residents.

This South Dakota workforce information can be quickly absorbed via the graphics produced by OnTheMap.

Example of an Inflow/Outflow Job Counts (commuting) table from OnTheMap

Example of an Inflow/Outflow Job Counts (commuting) map from OnTheMap

Corresponding detailed reports can also be produced, including information regarding where workers live and where residents work.

Home Destination Report
Where Workers Live
Who are Employed in South Dakota
Jobs Counts by Places Where Workers Live
Work Destination Report
Where Workers are Employed
Who Live in South Dakota
Jobs Counts by Places Where Workers are Employed
Place Count Share Place Count Share
South Dakota 352,032 94.6% South Dakota 352,032 96.6%
Iowa 6,575 1.8% Iowa 3,833 1.1%
Minnesota 5,242 1.4% Minnesota 2,582 0.7%
Nebraska 4,307 1.2% Nebraska 1,852 0.5%
North Dakota 1,105 0.3% North Dakota 1,714 0.5%
All Other Locations 2751 0.7% All Other Locations 2,413 0.6%
Total, All Jobs 372,012 100.0% Total, All Jobs 364,426 100.0%
Source: OnTheMap, Local Employment Dynamics, U.S. Census Bureau

In summary, the Census Bureau provides a wealth of workforce information via the LED partnerships with all states and U.S. Territories. Fortunately, all of these LED data tools can be easily accessed on the U.S. Census Bureau's website. The Labor Market Information Center's economic analysts are familiar with the tools and are available to assist as needed. You may contact us at 605.626.2314.

Note: Federal government employment is not generally included in the QWI data. Exempted employment varies slightly from state to state due to variations in state unemployment laws, but generally also excludes many farmers and agricultural employees, domestic workers, self-employed non-agricultural workers, members of the Armed Services, some state and local government employees as well as certain types of nonprofit employers and religious organizations (which are given a choice of coverage or non-coverage in a number of states). A more in-depth discussion of UI-coverage issues is available in the technical paper "Employment that is not covered by state unemployment."

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Marcia Hultman, Secretary
123 W. Missouri Ave.
Pierre, SD 57501-4505
Tel. 605.773.3101
Fax. 605.773.6184